Diabetes is a disease in which the patient has an increased amount of glucose or sugar in his or her blood. This in general, is a chronic condition and can happen either because insulin production in the Pancreas is inadequate or because the body’s cells do not respond sufficiently to insulin.
Insulin is a hormone, produced by the pancreas and its main task is to keep the sugar content of blood under control.
The level of sugar in our blood increases when we take food. The pancreas then releases insulin to stabilize the excess sugar or glucose. In a healthy body, the body metabolism or the process of digestion and self growth is well balanced. A major part of the digested food is released into the blood stream as glucose. A constant supply of glucose is necessary to maintain the energy and growth of the cells in our body. However, our body cells cannot utilize the raw glucose. As glucose is being manufactured by the digestive process, at the same time our pancreas that produces insulin gets the signal to release sufficient amounts of insulin to facilitate the entry of glucose into the body cells. The cells need glucose to function normally, but glucose cannot enter the cells on its own; it has to wait for the presence of the hormone called insulin to penetrate the cells.
In cases of diabetes patients, for some reason the pancreas either do not produce insulin or produce lesser quantity of insulin, with the result that the blood stream gets flooded with the unused glucose.
Eventually most of the glucose ends up in the kidney and passes out with urine.